You don't a different OS just to format the card, in fact you're better off staying in Windows or Mac and using the SD Association's SD Formatter tool (I'm a long time Debian user so nobody should get the idea that this is some kind of aversion to GNU/Linux).
The SD Association is the body that creates the standards to which SD cards must adhere. They offer a card format tool which will work with any genuine SD card https://www.sdcard.org/downloads/formatter_3/
This software formats all SD memory cards, SDHC memory cards and SDXC memory cards. SD Formatter provides quick and easy access to the full capabilities of your SD, SDHC and SDXC memory cards.
The SD Formatter was created specifically for memory cards using the SD/SDHC/SDXC standards. It is strongly recommended to use the SD Formatter instead of formatting utilities provided with operating systems that format various types of storage media. Using generic formatting utilities may result in less than optimal performance for your memory cards.
The SD/SDHC/SDXC memory cards have a "Protected Area" on the card for the SD standard's security function. The SD Formatter does not format the "Protected Area". Please use appropriate application software or SD-compatible device that provides SD security function to format the "Protected Area" in the memory card.
There is always the possibility that you have a fake SD card, i.e. it has a hacked partition table and/or firmware which misreports its size and speed rating; this would definitely make formatting it using built-in disk/format tools OS unreliable. Use the SD Association tool and if your card is standards compliant (genuine) and undamaged then it will work. If your card is damaged or fake you will soon know. Use the option "FULL (Erase)". It will take a while.
edit: btw I have used this tool successfully in Windows XP and it is very simple to use and reliable, so I'm recommending it from personal experience.